To create a square design, start with a band of square kufi calligraphy, then divides the words along the four sides of the square. Next, create a central pattern to tie the ends of the letters and fill the center of the square (figs. 1, 2, 3).
This process can be simplified by repeating the same word or words along the four sides (fig. 4, Calligraphic Name Designs , and Juneja Name Design), or can be made more complex by using several lines instead of only one.
In this case, start from the square perimeter, and rotate in a spiral way towards the center (fig. 5). Because the design should fill the complete area without remains or gaps, you must modify the letter shapes to fit in the allocated space, an effort which requires accurate calculations, sensitivity, and good taste. Never bend or change the letter form to the point where it looses its traditional recognizable form, or in a way that would confuse it with another character in the alphabet.
For additional examples please see next lesson, Square Kufi Full Square Designs, and the designs for “A New Kind of Science” book.